Hajj and `Umrah
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Hajj Types

Tamattu' Hajj
Tamattu` means performing `Umrah during the Hajj season, and on the Day of Tarwiah a pilgrim gets into the state of Ihram for Hajj. Anyone intending to perform a Tamattu`` Hajj should on approaching the Miqat make intention for `Umrah. After fulfilling the Hajj rituals, one should offer a sacrificial animal.
Qiran Hajj
In this type of Hajj, a pilgrim should declare his intention to perform both Hajj and `Umrah together. Only when he throws the Jamrah of Al-`Aqabah, gets his hair shaved or cut that he can put off his Ihram. However, he should offer a sacrificial animal.
Ifrad Hajj
In the Miqat, a pilgrim of Ifrad Hajj declares his intention for Hajj only. He maintains his Ihram up to the Day of Sacrifice. No offering is required from him.

Umrah

Rituals of `Umrah
In Arabic the word `Umrah is derived from I`timar which means a visit. However, `Umrah technically means paying a visit to Ka`bah, performing Tawaf [Circumambulation] around it, walking between Safa and Marwah seven times. A performer of `Umrah puts off his Ihram by having his hair shaved or cut.

Definition of Hajj:

Literally:

The word "Hajj" means heading for an honorable person or place.

Legally:

Hajj means worshipping Allah by performing the Hajj rituals, which are defined as specific acts performed at a specific time and place in a specific way.

Obligatory acts of Hajj

Obligatory:

Necessary ritual means whatever ritual a pilgrim must observe and if not, he should offer a sacrificial animal.

The Seven Obligations of Hajj:
1. Performing Ihram from Miqat
2. Standing by `Arafah
3. Spending one night in Muzdalifah
4. Spending one night in Mina
5. Shaving the head or cutting hair short (shaving is recommended)
6. Throwing pebbles
7. Farewell Circumambulation

There is agreement among Juristic Schools on the obligatory and necessary rituals of Hajj.

Visiting Medina > Medina

Declaring The Sacredness Of Medina

Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) declared Medina to be as sacred as Abraham (peace be upon him) had declared Mecca to be. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "What lies between its (Medina's) two lava plains is sacred."

Borders of the Sanctuary of Medina

1. What lies between its two lava plains: The Eastern one, previously known as "Hirrat Waqim", and the Western one, known as "Hirrat Al-Wabrah."

2. Its three small mountains (Tudaru, Umm Khalid and Al-`Aqil or Al-`Aqir) are declared sacred. These mountains overlook Al-`Aqiq Valley on the western side of `Urwah Well (near the Islamic University).

3. Declaring the sacredness of what lies between Thaur and `Air:

  • Thaur is a small, red mountain located behind Uhud. Nowadays, the airport road passes behind it.

  • `Air is a huge, black mountain located to the southern east of Dhul-Hulaifah (Abyar `Ali). On its western pass runs the Hijrah Highway.

1. Verily, Medina is one of the most beloved places to Allah, the Exalted, because of the following merits: It is the land of His Prophet's migration (peace be upon him), it is his couch, and its people are his neighbors and supporters. Moreover, it is the abode of Faith, for to it returns Faith at the end of time. At its entrances, there are Guardian Angels. Neither Antichrist nor the Plague will be admitted to it. It will be the last city in the world to be ruined. It is the land of receiving Revelation [Wahi]. There is no place in Medina that has not had Qur'anic verses or Prophetic hadith revealed or said therein. It is the Sanctuary of Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him).

2. Whoever intends evil actions against Medina, Allah will wipe him out just as water dissolves salt. It expels its impious inhabitants. For it Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) made these supplications:

  • O Allah! Make Medina as dear to us as You made Mecca dear or more.

  • O Allah! Increase in Medina twice the blessing (Thou showered) upon Mecca.

  • O Allah! Bless our Medina, bless us in our Sa` and Mudd, and make twice Thy blessing.

  • Let him die in Medina who can do so.

Supererogatory acts of Hajj

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